The initial clamping force, or preload, is created when the elastic recovery of a dental implant screw creates a force that pushes the abutment and the dental implant together. This occurs within the neck of the screw, in between the head of the screw and the first mating thread. When the clamping force is greater the external forces the screw should not loosen, however, this requires an accurate clamping force calculation. Although a clamping force calculator doesn’t exist, the force can be calculated if the coefficient of friction is known. Other factors that affect the calculation include screw stiffness and geometry, the rate of tightening, and the integrity of the hardware. Accurate preload is extremely important in implant dentistry and prevents the screw from coming loose by improving the fatigue strength of the screw and its locking effect. In cases of moderate lateral loads, 75% to 90% of the material elastic limit may be necessary to prevent the loosening of the screw.
Clarithromycin is a semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic used in the treatment of orofacial infections caused by gram-positive cocci and susceptible anaerobes. Its mechanism of action involves the prevention of bacterial growth by interfering with protein synthesis. It is an alternate drug used for antibiotic prophylaxis. Clarithromycin is an effective drug for patients who are allergic or have sensitivities to penicillin. Clarithromycin is often used in the treatment of dental abscesses. Such abscesses can be either periapical, inside the tooth itself, or periodontal, within the gums. Though there are some at-home measures that can be taken to temporarily relieve symptoms, orofacial infections and oral abscesses require antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria and properly heal. The dosage and length of time prescribed will depend upon the severity of the infection and any underlying conditions. Patients should complete their entire prescription as directed to avoid re-infection, partial healing, or further damage to teeth and gums.
Clavulanic acid is a beta-lactamase inhibitor that is sometimes combined with penicillin group antibiotics to overcome certain types of antibiotic resistance. Patients suffering from a tooth or oral infection due to poor oral hygiene, tooth decay, abscess, gum disease, or injury are generally prescribed an antibiotic to destroy the bacteria at the source of the infection. Though the initial infection may be located in a tooth or surrounding tissues, if left untreated, it may spread to other parts of the face, head, or even to the brain. To prevent this and to ensure that even some antibiotic-resistant strains are eliminated, practitioners may prescribe a penicillin-derived drug along with clavulanic acid in a more aggressive treatment. Though other antibiotics, such as azithromycin, clindamycin, or metronidazole, may be used for those who are allergic to penicillins, an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination has proved to be equally as effective, especially when compared to the results and side-effects of clindamycin.