Chi-square test

The Chi-Square statistic is a mathematical equation often used to test the relationship between two or more categorical variables. The test’s null hypothesis is that no relationship between two or more variables can exist; they are entirely independent. By comparing the pattern of responses that can be observed to the anticipated pattern of truly independent categorical variables, researchers can compare a critical value from the Chi-Square distribution to the calculated Chi-Square statistic to determine if an association does, in fact, exist. It’s important to be aware that the Chi-Square statistic is quite sensitive to sample size; in larger sample sizes, small differences will appear more statistically significant than they are. Researchers can mitigate this issue by choosing appropriately sized samples and merging categories when possible to create a smaller table. Dental health professionals often use the Chi-Square statistic to determine causal relationships between types of treatment and patient outcomes.

Chin graft

A chin graft is one of the various types of periodontal procedures that require a surgeon to remove natural bone from one source and graft it onto a different boney area in the mouth. This is usually done to support other cosmetic or corrective dental procedures, like dental implants. While a chin graft is technically considered a type of gum surgery because the gums are manipulated during the procedure, it’s really a surgery that primarily treats bone loss along the jaw after it has deteriorated or collapsed due to gum disease, tooth extraction, or injury. Tooth extraction is one of the most common causes of bone loss, however, some medications can also cause the loss of bony tissue in the jaw. While it is helpful to determine the initial cause of bone loss so it can be treated or discontinued if needed, the cause doesn’t change the treatment plan.


There are many hand instruments used by dentists and periodontists. One of the most common instruments used for dental implants is the chisel dental instrument. This instrument is critical to the dental implant procedure as it is used to remove, smooth, and contour areas of bone so that implant hardware can be inserted. A chisel may have a beveled cutting edge on one side of the dental instrument, which is used for cutting or removing bone. Some chisels have a beveled cutting edge on both sides of the dental instrument, which typically is used for splitting teeth in circumstances where this must be done to remove a broken or damaged tooth. Additionally, chisels may be straight or biangled, or may be triple angled to allow a periodontist to flatten the pulpal floor. Each chisel has unique applications and may be used in a variety of ways during dental implant procedures.

Chlorhexidine Gluconate

Chlorhexidine gluconate is a bis-biguanide antimicrobial used as an oral rinse or local antiseptic. It is most often used as a mouthwash with its mechanism of action being the lysis of bacterial membranes. Chlorhexidine gluconate is often used in the treatment of gingivitis, a disorder of the gums that causes the tissue to become inflamed and bleed. Used in conjunction with proper oral care, regular brushing and flossing, this drug can help in the reduction of gingivitis related inflammation and bleeding by reducing the number of bacteria in and around the affected tissues. The dosage and frequency of use may be adjusted by a dental practitioner depending upon the severity of the gum disease and any other underlying factors. Though chlorhexidine gluconate is a very effective treatment for gingivitis, it does come with possible side effects including alteration of the user’s sense of taste, an increase in tartar formation, and staining of the teeth, mouth, and tongue.