Endodontic treatment, or root canals, are a common, although often dreaded, dental procedure. They are often successful at preserving a natural tooth instead of having it extracted, which can cause bone loss and other complications. Endodontic treatment was introduced by Hermann in the 1920s, when he outlined the administration of calcium hydroxide for pulp therapy. This essentially created the foundation for modern endodontic therapy as it is known in dentistry today. Ideally, the outcome of a root canal is the removal of diseased pulp and the replacement of healthy pulp that begins to regenerate itself. To control the differentiation, metabolism, and proliferation of stem cells and to provide spatially correct positioning, appropriate scaffolding is necessary. Different types of scaffolding facilitates the regeneration of various tissues, making it critical that the treating dentist has a robust knowledge of which scaffolding is suitable for the type of tissue attempting to be regenerated.