Graft consolidation of the bone refers to the vascularization and integration at the cellular level of a graft with its recipient site. It involves the formation of a graft-woven bone complex that remodels into lamellar bone and further adapts based on loading. Bone graft consolidation can take place in dental procedures or surgeries following a bone graft to build up the site of a future implant or restoration. The new bone graft(s) may be affixed to the recipient site using screws and resorbable membranes made of collagen. The graft consolidation process can then take up to six months. A stable location for a dental implant is essential for the future success of the implant and prosthesis. Since some patients have suffered bone trauma or bone loss, a graft is necessary to prepare the area prior to the implant being placed. This graft must then be given time for consolidation to provide the implant with the greatest stability.
Grit blasting is the delivery to a dental implant surface of a high velocity stream of abrasive particles propelled by compressed air. It is designed to increase surface area. In dental implant procedures, there is evidence to suggest that grit blasting implant surfaces provides an increased base for the interlocking of bone tissue. It is therefore believed to play a role in the rate of osseointegration due to osteoblast adhesion and protein adsorption. However, additional studies also show that grit blasting has the potential to weaken the implant surface as a result of micro-embedded particles. These particles create an increased risk of fatigue fracture in the implant and therefore lead to a reduced implant success rate. However, proper application of grit blasting to implant surfaces can provide a benefit to the osseointegration process without increasing the risk of fatigue fractures. It is therefore essential that proper grit blasting protocols be followed when working with dental implants.