Veneers are one of the most common cosmetic dental procedures performed in the U.S. A veneer is a thin piece of porcelain (and less commonly, resin) that is placed over the front of a tooth to restore its size, shape, and color. Dental veneers can be used to correct a wide variety of cosmetic issues, including broken or chipped teeth, teeth gaps, and stained or severely discolored teeth. Veneers are permanent because the natural tooth must be altered or filed down to adhere the veneer using dental cement. While a patient can have a single veneer placed, most often, patients interested in significant restoration will have multiple veneers put on. Veneers give teeth the smooth, shiny, uniform look that celebrities often have; this is usually because they also have veneers. Patients can choose bright, white veneers or veneers with a more natural color to achieve their aesthetic goals.

Verification Jig

Before manufacturing the prosthetic framework for multiple dental implants, it’s important that periodontists ensure that the framework has the optimal passive seat. To do this, a verification jig is often used. This ensures that the master model is precise before the framework is created. A verification jig mimics the fit of the final restoration framework so the model accuracy can be verified to confirm that the end restoration fits perfectly. The jig is made of temporary cylinders that are joined together with a stiff resinous material and often, rods or sturdy wires. Then, the jig is placed over all of the dental implants in the patient’s mouth; an unstable frame means that the screws need to be adjusted on either side to prevent movement of the jig. The jig can be used for the final framework once all rocking or movement in the mouth has ceased.

Vertical Dimension

The vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO), is the measurement of the relationship between the upper and lower jaw when the teeth are fully occluded in max intercuspation. VDO is sometimes referred to as vertical dimension or occlusal vertical dimension (OVD). Both patients with and without teeth possess a VDO, however, the latter is more subjective in measurement and is generally based on esthetics and phonetics, or the sound of words being pronounced as the jaw is held in the desired position. The vertical dimension of occlusion can roughly be measured by asking the patient to say “Emma.” The position of the lower jaw on the “a” sound is called the vertical dimension at rest (VDR), which is roughly 3mm greater than a patient’s VDO. Reduction of the vertical dimension of occlusion can occur after tooth loss, tooth decay, gum disease, and loss of bone in the alveolar ridge.

Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO)

Vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO), also known as occlusal vertical dimension (OVD), is a term used in dentistry to indicate the superior-inferior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible when the teeth or wax rims are situated in maximum intercuspation or contact. In dental applications, the vertical dimension of occlusion is an important measurement in determining the correct dimensions for a prosthesis. In oral trauma, the proper vertical dimension of occlusion for the patient must be known so the correct basal bone height reconstruction can be achieved. An increase in basal bone height will reduce the VDO and can lead to problems including speech difficulties, unnatural lip contact, esthetic issues, and temporomandibular joint pain complications. A decrease in basal bone height will also cause issues including drooling of saliva, improper contact of the upper and lower teeth, and injuries to the soft tissue of the cheek due to accidental biting.