Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO)

Vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO), also known as occlusal vertical dimension (OVD), is a term used in dentistry to indicate the superior-inferior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible when the teeth or wax rims are situated in maximum intercuspation or contact. In dental applications, the vertical dimension of occlusion is an important measurement in determining the correct dimensions for a prosthesis. In oral trauma, the proper vertical dimension of occlusion for the patient must be known so the correct basal bone height reconstruction can be achieved. An increase in basal bone height will reduce the VDO and can lead to problems including speech difficulties, unnatural lip contact, esthetic issues, and temporomandibular joint pain complications. A decrease in basal bone height will also cause issues including drooling of saliva, improper contact of the upper and lower teeth, and injuries to the soft tissue of the cheek due to accidental biting.