Calcium phosphate

Calcium phosphate is a biomaterial that has a chemical structure that is very similar to naturally occurring bones and teeth. It has both osteoconductive and bioactive properties, making it an ideal choice for implant dentistry and orthopedic applications. The calcium phosphate molar mass plays a role in its ability to promote rapid bone formation and osseointegration, and a special calcium phosphate formula is often used to coat the outside of dental implant hardware to help increase the chances of the implant success. Factors that can affect the coating’s performance include but are not limited to the thickness of the coating, the coating’s purity, the crystallinity, and its chemical composition. Additionally, calcium phosphate is often used for other applications in implant dentistry, including bifurcation perforation repair, periapical defect repair, apical barrier formation, and pulp capping. Tricalcium phosphate is a form of calcium phosphate that may also be used.

Calcium sulfate (CaSO4)

Calcium sulfate, also referenced as calcium sulphate or CaSO4, is an inorganic compound often used as a dessicant in its anhydrous form. A common example of calcium sulfate is Plaster of Paris, and the readily available compound is used in many other applications, particularly in the field of implant dentistry. It has a history of being used during bone regeneration procedures as a grafting material or a graft extender. It has also been utilized as a barrier for guided tissue regeneration. The compound is extremely biocompatible and the body is able to completely absorb the material over time. The body does not react significantly to calcium sulfate and the area of implantation becomes calcium-rich and primed for dental implant hardware. Studies show that tissue migrates over the material if primary closure is not obtained. While inexpensive and abundant, calcium sulfate is not used as often in dentistry as other biomaterials.


A Caldwell-Luc antrostomy is a procedure often used to remove a damaged mucosal lining from the maxillary sinus, developed by George Caldwell in 1893 and Henry Luc in 1897. The Caldwell-Luc operation indications are usually when sinusitis in the area has not responded to antibiotic treatment, sinus rinses, and other non-invasive treatments. However, the procedure may also be used in cases of malignancy, dental cysts, sinus polyps, fractures in the bone surrounding the maxillary sinus, or the removal of foreign bodies. Most commonly, a Caldwell-luc procedure is performed under general anesthesia due to its invasiveness, but may be performed under local anesthetic in some situations, such as if an allergy to general anesthesia exists. Complications of a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy include potential damage to secondary dentition in children, damage to adult teeth, excessive or uncontrollable bleeding, and pain and discomfort.


Nearly all medical specialties use the scientific process of taking a tissue culture. There are three different types of tissue cultures: callus culture, a seed culture (used for plants), and embryo culture. A callus culture involves the removal of a small specimen from the body and facilitating its growth into a callus in a controlled environment outside the body in order to study it. A callus is a group or mass of unorganized cells. Usually, this is done in agar, a special nutrient-rich gel that feeds the specimen for optimal replication. Different types of micronutrients and macronutrients may be included, and basal salt mixtures may also vary to enhance growth. In dentistry, callus cultures can help professionals identify difficult to treat gingival bacteria or tumor tissue that grows from wounds in the oral cavity. When studied, the callus can help dental professionals develop an appropriately responsive treatment plan through trial and error.


The calvaria definition is a simple one — the calvaria is the topmost part of the neural cranium, which protects the cranial cavity that houses the brain. The calvaria is comprised of several different bones, including the parietal bones, the occipital bones, and the frontal bone, or forehead and is the primary part of the skull roof. The bones of the calvaria are comprised of layers of compact bone, which is separated by diploic veins, or cancellous bone that houses rich, red bone marrow until death. In a fetus and young child, the junctions at which the calvaria joins with other bones in the skull roof are soft and not yet melded together — this process, known as intramembranous ossification, completes after the first few years of life. The skull roof then becomes hard at the junctions and much more difficult to penetrate.