A Caldwell-Luc antrostomy is a procedure often used to remove a damaged mucosal lining from the maxillary sinus, developed by George Caldwell in 1893 and Henry Luc in 1897. The Caldwell-Luc operation indications are usually when sinusitis in the area has not responded to antibiotic treatment, sinus rinses, and other non-invasive treatments. However, the procedure may also be used in cases of malignancy, dental cysts, sinus polyps, fractures in the bone surrounding the maxillary sinus, or the removal of foreign bodies. Most commonly, a Caldwell-luc procedure is performed under general anesthesia due to its invasiveness, but may be performed under local anesthetic in some situations, such as if an allergy to general anesthesia exists. Complications of a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy include potential damage to secondary dentition in children, damage to adult teeth, excessive or uncontrollable bleeding, and pain and discomfort.